What is the Meaning and types of Agriculture in Nigeria? Explained

Meaning and types of Agriculture in Nigeria

In a country like Nigeria, where the majority of rural dwellers are farmers, the need to study Agriculture more in this country is needed. It is of no doubt that this sector has contributed immensely to the economic growth of the nation and improvement of the standard of living of its citizens. Contribution to employment, foreign exchange and raw materials for industries is among its importance in the country. Despite the presence of crude oil in the nation, yet, the impact of Agriculture to its economy cannot be underestimated.

Agriculture is the process of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. The history of Agriculture in Nigeria dates back to the pre-colonial era. Agriculture has undergone various developmental stages to attain its present stage in the country today. From the use of traditional implements to the adoption of mechanized implements by many. The patterns and practices of Agriculture has equally evolved.

It is pertinent to note that some of the geographical zones in Nigeria have their own Agricultural products that are being transported to other areas. For instance, the northern part of Nigeria are known for farm produce such as tomatoes, onions, yam, carrots etc. The Western part of Nigeria are known for products such as Cotton, Cocoa, Kolanut, and others. In the Southern part of the country, the production of Agricultural products such as Palm products eg; palm oil, Fishery, and vegetables are also known. One of the factors that influences the particular Agricultural products being produced in these areas is the type of vegetation and climatic condition present in such areas.

The practice of Agriculture in Nigeria has facilitated the production of export crops and crops for domestic use. Thus, the main patterns of Agricultural production in Nigeria are; Subsistence and Commercial Agricultural production. Nigeria is a country with a rapidly growing population, thus, the food and the Agricultural needs of its citizens is very important. Though the government has embarked in many policies and strategies towards ensuring that these sector receives the necessary attention that it needs, yet, a lot still needs to be done to boost this sector.

The four types of Agriculture in Nigeria which I am going to discuss in details here are; Crop production, Forestry, Livestock Raising and Fishery.

Types of Agriculture in Nigeria

1. Crop Production

This is the practice of growing crops for human consumption, feed for animals and for industrial use. It is of no doubt that Nigeria has a large hectare of arable lands. Farmers in Nigeria makes of various farming systems like crop rotation, shifting cultivation, mono cropping and continuous cropping to achieve this. The types of crops planted include; roots crops, vegetable crops and ornamental crops.

The main crop products in Nigeria are; cassava, maize, rice, beans, yam, vegetables and others. Most of these crop plants are the staple food of Nigerians. Animals equally have their own share in the various crops planted in the nation as they make use of it as their own feed. Others are further processed and combined to produce delicious foods. Ornamental crops of different kinds planted are used in beautifying our environment.

2. Livestock Raising

In Nigeria, livestock raising is a type of Agriculture practiced in many homes. Some of these livestock raised are for their family consumption while others practices large scale livestock raising. In so many parts of the country, the vegetation favours the rearing of free range animals, thus, there are abundant food for them. Others build a special place for this livestock and feed are being supplied to them there.

Some livestock are being raised for meat production, such livestock includes; cattle, ram, goat, sheep, cow and others. Some are used as security such as dog. Others are used as a transport system such as Donkey and Carmel. Livestock being raised also provides raw materials for leather industry as their skin is used in the production of hides and Skins.

3. Forestry

The growing of various woods crops is also practiced in Nigeria. Those trees grows in thick forests and other types of farmlands. One of the reasons why many farmers are not fully into this type of Agriculture is that some of these trees takes many years to attain maturity.

Examples of these trees are; Mahogany, Obeche and others. These woods when cut down are used in construction companies, furniture Manufacturing companies and by wood carvers. It is also known that forests can be used as game reserves and also for wildlife conservation which serves as tourist centers. In Nigeria, examples of such game reserves are; Yankari game reserves and Obudu cattle ranch. Some trees in such forests also serves as roots and herbs used in the production of herbal or traditional medicine.

4. Fishery

Fishery as a type of Agriculture is also practiced in Nigeria. Some rivers and seas in the country harbours fishes which are harvested by fishermen in the country. Farmers also engages in fishery and have their own natural or Artificial fish ponds. Different species of fishes are being raised from fingerlings to fully matured fishes. Those that practices this type of Agriculture in the country either raises for their family consumption or for commercial purposes depending on the scale. Fish farming is gaining more attention in the country now than in the past.

Agriculture is very important in Nigeria. Apart from the provision of jobs to the growing population, making food available at all times cannot be overlooked. Hope I have answered your question on “What is the meaning of Agriculture in Nigeria and types?”. Keeping visiting for more contents.

Also Read; What are the 5 Importance of Agriculture in Nigeria? Explained

10 Problems of Agriculture in Nigeria and Solutions